Physics (PHY 1207) - Grade 12

Unit Area Covered Marks
Unit 1 Electrostatics 05 Read more
Unit 2 Current Electricity 05 Read more
Unit 3 Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 10 Read more
Unit 4 Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents 20 Read more
Unit 5 Electromagnetic Waves 10 Read more
Unit 6 Optics 05 Read more
Unit 7 Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations 10 Read more
Unit 8 Atoms and Nuclei 05 Read more
Unit 9 Electronic Devices 20 Read more
Unit 10 Communication Systems 10 Read more
Total Marks 100

Unit 1


  • Electric charge
  • Kinds of charges
  • Coulomb‟s law: force between two point charges
  • Forces between multiple charges
  • Principle of superposition and continuous charge distribution
  • Electric field
    • Electric field due to a point charge
    • Electric field lines
    • Electric dipole and electric field due to it Torque on a dipole in uniform electric field
  • Statement of Gauss‟s theorem
    • Applications of Gauss‟s theorem to determine electric field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
  • Electric potential
    • Potential difference
    • Electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and a system of charges
    • Equipotential surfaces
  • Electric potential energy
    • System of two point charges
    • Electric dipole in an electrostatic field
  • Conductors and insulators
    • Free charges and bound charges inside a conductor
    • Dielectrics and electric polarization

Unit 2

Current Electricity

  • Electric current
  • Flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor
  • Drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current
  • Resistance
    • Ohm‟s law and electrical resistance
    • V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear)
    • Electrical energy and power
    • Electrical resistivity and conductivity
    • Carbon resistors
    • Colour code for carbon resistance
    • Series and parallel combinations of resistors
    • Temperature dependence of resistance
  • Cell
    • Internal resistance of a cell
    • Potential difference and emf of a cell
    • Combination of cells in series and in parallel
  • Electrical measurements
  • Kirchhoff‟s laws and define the reciprocal of resistivity of a material as its conductivity.
  • realize the advantage of remembering the sentence "B B ROY of Great Britain has a Very Good Wife" in determining the value and the tolerance of carbon resistances.
  • express the total resistance of a series and a parallel combination of resistors in terms of the resistances of the individual resistors in the combination.
  • appreciate that the temperature coefficient of a resistance is defined as the change in Potentiometer: principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells
  • Measurement of internal resistance of a cell

Unit 3

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

  • Magnetic Field
  • Concept of magnetic field
  • Oersted‟s Experiment
  • Biot-savart Law:
    • its application to current carrying circular loop.
    • its application to infinitely long straight wire
  • Ampere's law
  • Interaction of Magnetic Field with moving charges and current carrying conductors
  • Force on a moving charge n uniform magnetic and electric fields; Lorentz force
  • Force on a current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field
  • Force between two parallel current carrying conductors
  • Definition of ampere
  • Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
  • Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
  • Motion of a 'moving charge' n a magnetic field
  • General trajectory of a moving charge in a magnetic field
  • The Cyclotron
  • Velocity Selector
  • Moving Coil
  • Galvanometer
  • Principle, construction and working of a moving coil galvanometer
  • "Conversion‟ of a moving coil galvanometer into an ammeter a voltmeter
  • Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole
  • Magnetic Field Lines
  • Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field
  • Bar Magnet as an equivalent solenoid
  • Earth's Magnetic Field
    • Cause of Earth‟s magnetic field and the simple pictorial representation
    • The "three elements‟ used the describing earth‟s magnetic field.
  • Magnetic Substances
    • Magnetisation and agnetic Intensity
    • Permeability and susceptibility
    • Diamagnetism
    • Paramagnetism
    • Ferromagnetism
  • Electro Magnets and Permanent Magnets
    • Electromagnets
    • Factor affecting the strength of Electromagnets
    • Permanent Magnets

Unit 4

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Faraday‟s law
  • Induced Emf and Current
  • Lenz‟s law
  • Motional electromotive force
  • Eddy Currents
  • Self induction and the coefficient of self inductance
  • Alternating Currents
    • Alternating Currents
    • Peak and rms values of alternating currents and voltages
    • Alternating voltage applied to a pure inductor (L)
    • Alternating voltage applied to a pure capacitor (C)
  • AC Circuits
    • Alternating voltage applied to a pure resistor (R)
    • Phasor representation† AC current and voltage
    • Graphical simultaneous representation of AC voltage (V) and AC current (I) versus (ωt)
    • Series LCR circuit
    • Resonance
    • Power in AC circuits
    • Wattless Currents
    • LC oscillations (Qualitative study only)
  • Electrical Devices
    • AC generator
    • Transformer

Unit 5

Electromagnetic Waves

  • Displacement current
    • Maxwell‟s Equations
    • Ampere‟s law
    • Applications
  • Electromagnetic Waves
    • production
    • characteristic
    • properties
    • mathematical and graphical representation
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
    • different regions of e.m. spectrum production and detection of e.m. waves
    • frequency and wavelength ranges
    • uses of em waves

Unit 6


  • Reflection of light
    • the phenomenon
    • applications
  • Spherical mirrors
    • related terms
    • sign conventions
    • ray diagrams
  • Mirror formula
    • Derivation of the formula
    • linear magnification
    • related numiercals
  • Refraction of light
    • Meaning
    • Laws of refraction
    • Refractive index
    • related problems
  • Total internal reflection
    • meaning of the term
    • necessary conditions
    • daily life examples
  • Refraction at a spherical surface
    • related terms
    • spherical mirror, for both kinds of mirrors.
    • derive the mirror formula for a spherical mirror
  • appreciate the algebric nature of the terms u, v, f and r
  • define the term linear magnification and obtain the it mathematical expression for it
  • solve problems on the mirror formula.
  • recall the meaning of the term refraction of light
  • state snell‟s law
  • Thin Lenses
    • lens formula
    • lens maker‟s formula
    • magnification
    • power of a lens
    • combination of lenses
    • combination of a lens and a mirror
  • Prism, Dispersion and scattering of light
    • Refraction of light through a prism
    • the "prism equations‟
    • dispersion of light
    • dispersion in a prism
    • scattering of light
    • related natural phenomenon
  • Human Eye
    • image formation
    • power of accommod-ation
    • common defects of vision and their correction
    • correction of vision defects
  • Optical instruments
    • microscopes
    • simple microscope
    • compound microscope
    • astronomical telescopes-refracting and reflecting
    • terrestrial telescope
  • Wave optics
    • wave front
    • Huygen‟s principle
    • reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using Huygen‟s principle
    • Doppler effect (qualitative)
  • Interference of light
    • the phenomenon
    • coherent sources
    • young‟s double slit experiment.
  • Diffraction of light
    • the phenomenon
    • diffraction at a single slit
    • interference and diffraction patterns
    • resolving power of optical instruments.
  • Polarisation of light
    • the phenomenon
    • plane polarized light
    • Mulus‟ law
    • polarisation by scattering
    • polarisation by reflection
    • Brewster‟s law
    • Polaroids

Unit 7

Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations

  • Dual Nature of Radiations
    • Hertz‟s experiment
    • Emission of electron
  • Photoelectric Effect
    • Phenomenon of photoelectric effect
    • factors affecting photoelectric current
    • related terms
    • laws of photoelectric effect
  • Einstein's photoelectric equation
    • mathematical expression
    • explanation of photoelectric effect on the basis of Mathematical equation
    • explanation of laws of photoelectric effect based on Mathematical equation
    • particle nature of light- the phton
    • dual nature of light
  • Wave nature of matter
    • wave nature of particles
    • de-Broglie relation
    • Davisson-Germer experiment

Unit 8

Atoms and Nuclei

  • Alpha particle scattering Experiment
    • Alpha particle scattering
    • Concept of atomic nucleus
  • Rutherford's Atomic model
    • Basic model
    • atomic spectra
  • The Bohr Model of the atom
    • Postulates
    • Mathematical Expressions
    • Energy level Diagram
    • Derive mathematical
    • expressions for The Nucleus
  • Composition and size of nucleus
    • Atomic masses, isotopes, isobars and isotones
  • Radioactivity
    • alpha, beta and gamma rays and their properties
    • Radioactive decay laws
  • Mass-Energy relation and mass defect
  • binding energy per nuclear and its variation with mass number
  • Nuclear-reactions: fission and fusion

Unit 9

Electronic Devices

  • Solids
    • Energy bands in solids(Qualitative ideas only)
    • Conductors, insulators and semiconductors
  • Semiconductor devices
    • Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias
    • Diode as a rectifier
    • I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode
    • Zener diode as a voltage regulator
    • Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor
    • Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration)
    • Oscillator using transistor
  • Digital electronics
    • Logic gates NOT, OR, AND, NOR and NAND
    • Transistor as a switch

Unit 10

Communication Systems

  • Communication
    • Elements of communication system (blockdiagram only)
    • Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data)
    • Bandwidth of transmission medium
    • Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation
  • Modulation
    • Need for modulation
    • Production and detection of amplitude-modulated wave