Biology (BI 1104) - Grade 11

Unit Area Covered Marks
Unit 1 Biodiversity 05 Read more
Unit 2 Diversity in Plants and Fungi 10 Read more
Unit 3 Structural Organisation in Plants (Angiosperms) 05 Read more
Unit 4 Diversity in Animals 05 Read more
Unit 5 Life and its Chemistry 05 Read more
Unit 6 Biomolecules 05 Read more
Unit 7 Study of Cell-Tools and Techniques 10 Read more
Unit 8 Structure and Functions of a Cell 10 Read more
Unit 9 Cell Cycle 05 Read more
Unit 10 Photosynthesis in Plants 05 Read more
Unit 11 Mineral Nutrition and Transport in Plants 05 Read more
Unit 12 Cellular Respiration 05 Read more
Unit 13 Structural Organisation in Animals 05 Read more
Unit 14 Nutrition, Digestion and Absorption in Animals 05 Read more
Unit 15 Circulation and Exchange of Gases in Animals 05 Read more
Unit 16 Osmoregulation and Excretion in Animals 05 Read more
Unit 17 Movement and Locomotion in Animals 05 Read more
Total Marks 100

Unit 1


  • Introduction
    • Describe the characteristics of living organisms
    • Explain the significance of diversity of life forms in their surroundings
  • History of Classification
    • Develop time sense in the evolution of art of classification over the years.
    • Acknowledge by describing the contributions of various taxonomists and explain their systems of classification.
    • Enlist the features of the Five Kingdom classification as proposed by R.H Whittaker
    • Describe the characteristic features of each kingdom
  • Methods of Classification
    • Discuss the importance and use of tools and techniques in classification of organisms
    • Use simple dichotomous keys based on easily identifiable characteristics.
    • Relate the use of cladogram to phylogenetic analysis
  • Brief classification of Organisms
    • Define and describe the Binomial System of naming species
    • Describe the hierarchical scheme of grouping organisms
    • Compare the Three Domain classification with the earlier systems in terms of modifications
    • Discuss the evolutionary position of viruses

Unit 2

Diversity in Plants and Fungi

  • Introduction
    • Explain the basis of classification in Plants.
  • Characteristic Features of Plants
    • Describe features of algae, its classification, life cycle and economic importance
    • Discuss features and life cycle of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes
    • Describe and compare features of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
  • Characteristic Features of Fungi
    • Explain the characteristics of different types of fungi with suitable examples and relate to their economic importance
    • Explain the asexual and sexual reproduction in fungi.
    • Describe the importance of reproduction classification in fungi

Unit 3

Structural Organisation in Plants (Angiosperms)

  • External Morphology of Plants
    • Present an overview of plant body.
    • Discuss morphology of roots, stem and leaves along with their various modifications
    • Identify and describe the inflorescence and parts of flowers and fruits
  • Anatomy of Plants
    • Study different kind of plant tissues and discuss their features.
    • Explain the anatomy of dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf.
    • Describe the secondary growth in root and stem of dicot plants.
    • Detailed description of the structure of two types of seeds
  • Plant Families
    • Identify salient features of Fabacae, Solanacae and Liliacae

Unit 4

Diversity in Animals

  • Introduction to Classification
    • Define the basic characteristics of animals
    • Explain the basis/ fundamental principles of animal classification such as levels of organization, symmetry, diploblastic and triploblastic organization, body plan, coelom, segmentation and notochord development
  • Classification based on Characters
    • State the different levels of classification of animals such as phylum, sub-phylum, upto species and sub species.
    • State the chief characteristics of major animal phyla and provide examples
    • State the chief characteristics of major animal phyla and provide examples
    • Identify the differences between chordates, non chordates, and hemichordates
    • Identify lab specimens and classify them into respective groups
    • Observe various organisms in the locality and groups them into respective phyla and state their specific characters

Unit 5

Life and its Chemistry

  • Introduction
    • Explain the general concepts pertaining to living cells
  • Chemical Concepts
    • Describe chemical bonds: covalent and non-covalent (co-ordinate, ionic, hydrogen, Van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions) present in biomolecules
    • Analyse carbon as important base of biomolecules
    • Write the functional groups: methyl, ethyl, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, phenyl, sulfydryl, phosphoryl
    • Appraise that life depends on water
    • Describe the importance of pH and buffering activity of cell constituents
    • State the basic thermodynamic principles involved in biochemical reactions
    • Express energy flow through different processes such as diffusion, osmosis, imbibition, absorption, adsorption, mass flow and active transport

Unit 6


  • Introduction
    • Familiarize with micro- and macro-molecules
  • Carbohydrates
    • Recall that carbohydrates constitute the most abundant category of biomolecules
    • Define and classify carbohydrates
    • List the role of carbohydrates
    • Discuss the nature of artificial or synthetic sweeteners and their impact on health
  • Lipids
    • Explain the hydrophobic nature of lipids
    • Classify lipids on the basis of their chemical structure
    • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
    • Describe the importance of cholesterol in human body
  • Proteins
    • State the composition of proteins
    • Understand the chemical structure of amino acid
    • Describe the structure of proteins
    • List the functions of proteins
  • Enzymes
    • Name and classify Enzymes
    • Enlist and describe the factors affecting enzyme action
    • Explain the mechanism of enzyme action
  • Nucleic Acids
    • Describe the basic structure and functions of DNA and RNA
  • Vitamins
    • Describe the role of vitamins and minerals in life

Unit 7

Study of Cell-Tools and Techniques

  • Introduction
    • Recall the structure and function of the cell
    • Identify the necessity of tools and techniques in the study of cells
  • Microscopy
    • Recognise the limitations of human eye and need of technology for refined observation.
    • Familiarise and list the basic principles of microscopy
    • Explain briefly different kinds of microscopes
    • Use various microscopic techniques for the study of cell structure and functions
    • Identify specific principles of fixation and staining of microscopic specimens.
  • Cell fractionation, Chromatography, Electrophoresis
    • Identify the significance of separation of sub-cellular components to study the structural and functional aspects of cell
    • Explain the principle and steps involved in cell fractionation, chromatography and electrophoresis
  • Tissue Culture
    • Describe the technique of plant and animal tissue culture
    • Discuss the contribution of Tissue Culture technique in advancement of knowledge of biology and human welfare

Unit 8

Structure and Functions of a Cell

  • Introduction
    • Establish cell as the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms
    • Describe the cell theory based on its postulates
    • Discuss the need of multicellularity in organisms
  • Cell Diversity
    • Correlate diversity in the structure of cells to functions they perform.
  • Cellular Organisation in Prokaryotes
    • Identify variations in shapes of bacteria
    • Explain the general scheme of organisation of a typical prokaryotic cell.
    • Describe the important structural features of prokaryotic cells.
    • Classify bacteria on the basis of Gram staining technique.
  • Cellular Organisation in Eukaryotes
    • Identify cell organelles which are distinctively present in a plant cell and animal cell
    • Identify and describe the structure of a plant and animal cell as seen under electron microscope
    • Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and its role in regulating the entry and exit of ions and molecules within a cell
    • Describe the structure and function of plant cell wall
    • Compare the role of cell wall with that of cell membrane
    • Discuss and describe the structure and function of cell organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, plastids, microtubules, flagella, cilia, centrioles and nucleus
    • Correlate the structural organisation of different cell organelles with their respective function
    • Compare and contrast between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in terms of size, presence and absence of cell organelles, location and structure of genetic material, and protein synthesis

Unit 9

Cell Cycle

  • Introduction
    • Describe the cell cycle and its distinct stages
    • Recall and appreciate the importance of cell cycle
  • Phases of Cell Cycle and their Significance
    • Comprehend the significance of the events occurring in various phases of the cell cycle
    • Connect different phases as a rhythmic pattern.
  • Cell Division
    • Highlight the differences and similarities in the process of cell division between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • Prepare / observe / describe and draw labelled figures of various stages of mitosis and meiosis
  • Regulation of Cell Cycle
    • Identify various factors that control the cell cycle
    • Analyse the significance of the regulation of cell cycle/ cell division
    • Discuss different stages of Mitosis and Meiosis.
    • Compare the two types of cell division.

Unit 10

Photosynthesis in Plants

  • Introduction
    • Describe photosynthesis as an essential process in plants
    • Appraise the discoveries and investigations of various scientists which led to the formulation of the chemical reactions involved in photosynthesis
  • Photosynthetic Machinery
    • Analyse the anatomical and morphological adaptive features of leaves which make them suitable factories to carry out the process of photosynthesis
    • Describe the anatomical structure of chloroplast, the site of Photosynthesis
    • Draw the link between the specific structure of various photosynthetic pigments and their respective functions
    • Differentiate between Absorption and Action spectra
    • Draw the link between light absorbed and rate of photosynthesis
  • Light Reaction (or Hill reaction)
    • Differentiate between light dependent and carbon fixation stages of Photosynthesis
    • Explain the mechanism of light dependent phase
    • Describe the organisation of Photo systems I & II and their role in trapping light energy
    • Explain the significance of photolysis of water in light reaction
    • Define photophosphorylation
    • Distinguish between cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
  • Carbon Fixation Reactions(or Calvin Bensen cycle)
    • Mention the important steps involved in investigation of light independent phase of photosynthesis by Calvin and his colleagues
    • Analyse the pathway of carbon in photosynthesis through the study of the Calvin cycle
    • Decipher the significance of the specific nomenclature/reference of Calvin cycle as C3 cycle.
  • Adaptations in Tropical and Sub-tropical Plants
    • Justify the requirement of C4 pathway/cycle in tropical and sub-tropical plants
    • Draw the specialized anatomy of the leaves of C4 plants
    • Analyse the process of photorespiration and the reason of its occurrence
  • Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
    • Describe the factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
    • Link the significance of photosynthesis with the productivity of agricultural/crop plants and human energy demands

Unit 11

Mineral Nutrition and Transport in Plants

  • Introduction
  • Macro and Micro-nutrients
    • Describe the role of nutrients in plant growth and survival
    • Recognise the criteria of "essential‟ elements
    • Differentiate between macro and micro nutrients
    • Explain deficiency symptoms and the effects of toxicity of macro and micronutrients
    • Define hydroponics and apply the concept in practical
  • Nutrient Cycle
    • Describe and draw the nitrogen cycle
    • Importance of Nitrogen Cycle in Plant Systems
    • Describe the working of the nitrogen cycle in the ecosystem
    • Describe the role of microorganisms in the nitrogen cycle.
    • Describe symbiotic and non symbiotic nitrogen fixation
    • Explain the role of ammonia produced during nitrogen fixation
  • Mechanism of Transport in Plants
    • Identify the role of pores in diffusion and facilitated diffusion
    • Recognise the role of active transport in plant nutrition
    • Discuss the significance of imbibition
    • State the relation between water potential, solute potential and pressure potential and osmotic pressure
    • Define the root pressure and suction pressure theories and identify the groups of plants exhibiting these mechanisms
    • Explain the role of transpiration in the ascent of water from soil
    • Recognise the symplast and apoplast theories of water transport
    • Explain the unidirectional and bidirectional transport mechanisms
    • State the mechanism of transport in phloem
    • Relate the mass flow hypothesis with transport in phloem

Unit 12

Cellular Respiration

  • Introduction
    • Differentiate between respiration and combustion.
    • Define the role of ATP as the energy currency of the cell
    • Describe cellular respiration as a series of redox reactions
    • Discuss how photosynthesis and respiration are two similar processes yet different from each other
  • Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
    • Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration on the basis of their site, the process involved and energy generated in terms of ATP production
    • Describe the fate of the products of anaerobic respiration
    • Enlist the phases of aerobic respiration
    • Summarise the pathway of Glycolysis
    • Analyse the fate of pyruvic acid (end product of glycolysis) through the Krebs‟/TCA Cycle
    • Summarise the pathway and significance of Electron Transporting System
  • Respiratory Output
    • Calculate the total energy yield of cellular respiration.
    • Compare the respiratory quotients of various respiratory substrates like carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

Unit 13

Structural Organisation in Animals

  • Introduction
    • Recapitulate the levels of organization in organisms
    • Classify animal tissues into epithelial, connective, muscular and neural tissues
  • Epithelial Tissues
    • Differentiate between simple and compound epithelia
    • Describe various types of simple epithelia including their modifications such as ciliated epithelium and glandular epithelium
    • Discuss the role of epithelial tissues in absorption and secretion
    • Identify the location and state the functions of compound epithelium
    • Briefly describe the type of cell junctions
  • Connective Tissues
    • State the functions of connective tissues with examples
    • Differentiate between loose and dense connective tissues
    • State the location and function of areolar and adipose tissues
    • Identify blood, bone, cartilage, tendon and ligament as specialized connective tissues and discuss their cellular organization
  • Muscular and Neural Tissues
    • Briefly describe the three type of muscular tissues
    • Briefly comment on muscle and neural tissues

Unit 14

Nutrition, Digestion and Absorption in Animals

  • Introduction
    • Differentiate between the terms nutrition, digestion and absorption
    • Identify the various modes of nutrition: autotrophic and heterotrophic
  • Human Alimentary Canal
    • Comprehend the type of human dentition
    • Identify the four types of teeth and compute the dental formula
    • State the roles of tongue, teeth, epiglottis and oesophageal sphincter
    • Recognize the location of: stomach and its three major parts; small intestine and its three parts; and three regions of large intestine
    • Compare the stomach of ruminants with stomach of humans
  • Histology of Human Gut
    • Describe the four major layers that form the wall of the alimentary canal
    • State the location and function of structures such as villi, microvilli, crypts of Lieberkûhn and goblet cells
  • Associated Glands
    • State the location and function of salivary glands and their secretion
    • State the location and function of liver, gall bladder and pancreas
  • Movement and Digestion of Food in the Alimentary Canal
    • State the significance of peristalsis and the role of longitudinal and circular muscles in this process
    • Describe the role of various gastrointestinal secretions during digestion of food components
    • Comment on the hormonal control of digestive secretions
  • Absorption
    • Differentiate between diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport to discuss absorption of simple products of digestion
  • Disorders of Digestive System
    • List the common disorders of the digestive system
    • Comment briefly on their clinical aspects
  • Health and Nutrition
    • Discuss the concept of calorific value
    • Compare the calorific value for proteins, fats and carbohydrates
    • Categorize the types of nutrients into macro- and micro-nutrients and trace elements
    • Discuss the concept of a balanced diet
    • Discuss the role of vitamins, minerals, water and roughage in diet
    • Describe the important nutritional deficiency disorders
    • Discuss the relation of dietary habits and lifestyle diseases

Unit 15

Circulation and Exchange of Gases in Animals

  • Introduction
    • Differentiate between the terms breathing and respiration
    • List the diverse mechanisms employed by different groups of animals for respiration
  • Human Respiratory System
    • List the organs comprising the human respiratory system.
    • Explain the mechanism of pulmonary ventilation
    • Comprehend the meaning of terms : respiratory volumes and capacities
    • Discuss the role of blood in the transport of respiratory gases
    • State the locomotion of respiratory centre and discuss how respiration in humans gets regulated
  • Introduction to Circulation
    • Define blood as a complex connective tissue
    • Describe briefly the external and internal structure of human heart
    • Differentiate between open and closed circulatory systems
    • State the characteristic features of arteries and veins
    • Discuss briefly the process of microcirculation
  • Blood Circulation
    • Explain the flow of blood through the heart
    • Explain the significance of double circulation.
    • Describe the phases of cardiac cycle
    • Briefly state the mechanisms for regulation of heart beat
    • Broadly relate the above process with standard ECG and identify its clinical significance
    • Elaborate the general plan of blood circulation through human body
  • Gaseous Exchange
    • Describe the concept of partial pressure and explain the phenomena of pulmonary gaseous exchange
    • Relate the same concept to explain the exchange of gases between body tissues and blood
    • Describe how haemoglobin helps in transport of oxygen from lungs to tissues
    • Explain the oxygen dissociation curve
    • Describe the ways in which CO2 gets transported from tissues to the lungs for exhalation
  • Disorders of Respiratory and Circulatory System
    • List the major disorders of respiratory system and discuss their clinical aspects
    • List the major disorders of human circulatory system and discuss their clinical aspects
    • Suggest ways to maintain cardiac health

Unit 16

Osmoregulation and Excretion in Animals

  • Introduction
    • Define the terms excretion and osmoregulation
    • Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators
  • Osmoregulation
    • Discuss the mechanisms by which animals regulate their water-solute balance in freshwater and marine environment
    • State the mechanisms by which animals regulate their water-solute balance in terrestrial environment including desert animals
  • Excretory Products
    • Identify the sources of nitrogenous waste in animals
    • Discuss the elimination of various nitrogenous wastes in animals
    • Infer CO2 and excess water as excretory products in animals/li>
  • Excretion in Invertebrates
    • Briefly comment on: contractile vacuoles, protonephridia and flame cells; nephridia, malpighian tubules, green glands
  • Human Excretory System
    • Describe the excretory system in humans
    • Describe the internal organization of kidney
  • Urine Formation
    • Discuss the mechanism of urine formation: the processes of glomerular filtration, selective reabsorption and secretion
    • Explain the counter current mechanism for the production of concentrated urine
  • Regulation of Kidney Function
    • Describe the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in regulation of renal functions
    • Discuss the regulatory role of juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) or renin-angiotensin mechanism
    • State how Atrial Natriuretic Factor(ANF) acts as a check on the renin-angiotensin mechanism
  • Micturition and Constituents of Urine
    • Define the term micturition
    • Justify how clinical examination of urine samples can help in diagnosis of certain metabolic disorders
  • Accessory Excretory Organs
    • Recognize organs other than kidney that are involved in elimination of excretory products viz. lungs, liver, skin and discuss their role in excretion
  • Disorders of Excretory System
    • State some common disorders of excretory system and their clinical aspects
    • Discuss briefly the techniques of haemodialysis and kidney transplantation
    • Reason why patient‟s body tends to reject a kidney transplant

Unit 17

Movement and Locomotion in Animals

  • Introduction
    • Differentiate between movement and locomotion
    • State the significance of movement and locomotion in different animals
    • Discuss the types of locomotion found in different animals
  • Role of Different Type of Muscles
    • Recognize muscle as a specialized tissue
    • List important features of the skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles
    • State the unique properties of skeletal muscle and establish the relation with its structure
  • Structure of Contractile Proteins
    • Discuss the structure and function of action and myosin filaments
  • Muscular Contraction
    • Explain the mechanism of sliding filament theory of muscle contraction and relaxation
    • Describe the biochemical events that occur during muscle contraction and relaxation
    • Discuss the role of calcium in muscle contraction
    • Differentiate between red and white muscle fibres
  • The Skeletal System
    • State the significance of skeletal system
    • List the components of axial and appendicular skeleton
    • Describe the arrangement of bones in the human body
    • Discuss the significance of each of these structures
    • Differentiate between fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints and synovial joints
  • Muscular and Skeletal System Disorders
    • List some important disorders of the muscular and skeletal system
    • Discuss briefly the clinical aspects of these disorders Write steps to maintain muscular and skeletal efficiency