Science (S 804) - Grade 8
|Unit 1||Exploring Forces||05||Read more|
|Unit 2||Understanding Pressure||05||Read more|
|Unit 3||Sound||05||Read more|
|Unit 4||Language of Chemistry||05||Read more|
|Unit 5||Metals and Non-Metals||05||Read more|
|Unit 6||Chemical Effects of Electric Currents||05||Read more|
|Unit 7||Cell – A Coordinator||05||Read more|
|Unit 8||Managing Interdependence||05||Read more|
|Unit 9||Exploring Microorganism||05||Read more|
|Unit 10||Light Exploration||05||Read more|
|Unit 11||Some Natural Phenomena||10||Read more|
|Unit 12||The Night Sky||05||Read more|
|Unit 13||Synthetic Fibres and Plastics||05||Read more|
|Unit 14||Coal and Petroleum||05||Read more|
|Unit 15||Combustion and Flame||05||Read more|
|Unit 16||Air And Water Pollution||05||Read more|
|Unit 17||Cell to Organism||05||Read more|
|Unit 18||Landmark in the Human Development||05||Read more|
|Unit 19||Technology in Food Production||05||Read more|
- Define the term force.
- Explore the effects of force in our daily life.
- Name different kinds of forces such as gravitational force, impact force, muscular force, magnetic force, electrostatic force and frictional force.
- Classify forces into contact and noncontact forces.
- Describe the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on moving objects.
- Explore the force of friction.
- Investigate the factors affecting friction.
- Analyze situations to decide whether friction is desirable or undesirable.
- Explain how lubricants and ball bearings reduce friction.
- Suggest ways of reducing /increasing friction in daily life.
- Perform simple activities related to different kinds of forces.
- Understand the concept of pressure as force per unit area.
- Explore the situations where high or low pressure is useful.
- Name the units of pressure like N/m and Pascal.
- Solve numericals based on pressure.
- Investigate the effect of pressure exerted by liquids at varying depths.
- Explore the impact of pressure on construction of dams and fountains.
- Apply the concept of atmospheric pressure to explain real life examples.
- Understand and explore the production of sound.
- Investigate the conditions under which sound travels.
- Understand and explain the characteristics of sound.
- Explore the effect of amplitude on loudness and frequency on pitch of a sound.
- Understand the working of human ear.
- Explore that all the vibrations are not audible.
- Understand the difference between noise and pleasant sound.
- Analyse the effects of noise pollution on human health.
- Explore the methods to reduce noise pollution.
Language of Chemistry
- Recall the meaning of the terms-atoms and molecules.
- Explain the formation of cations and anions.
- Define the term radical.
- List acidic and basic radicals.
- Differentiate between acid and basic radicals.
- Explain the formation of salts.
- Comprehend the concept of atomicity.
- Deduce the formula of salts using. displacement reaction.
- Write chemical equations from word equations.
- Explain balancing of chemical equations.
- Infer that balancing of chemical equation justifies that mass remains conserved during a chemical reaction.
- Carry out an activity to show balancing of chemical equations.
Metals and Non-Metals
- Define the terms: displacement reaction, minerals and ores. \
- Explain briefly the position of metals and non-metals in the periodic table.
- Identify the substances around you as metals and non-metals.
- Study the physical properties of metals and non-metals highlighting the exceptions.
- Differentiate between the physical properties of metals and non-metals.
- Investigate the effect of air, water, acids and bases on metals and nonmetals and compare their chemical properties.
- Recall the burning of magnesium ribbon in air and identify the nature of the oxide formed by using litmus solution.
- Study the reactivity of different metals such as zinc and copper with the salt solution selected as Ferrous Sulphate.
- Recognize the uses of metals and nonmetals in day to day life.
- Investigate the factors causing corrosion in metals.
- Carry out an activity to show the liberation of Hydrogen gas on reaction of Zinc metal with dilute Hydrochloric acid.
Chemical Effects of Electric Current
- Recall different materials which conduct electric current.
- Define the terms: electrodes, electrolytes, electroplating and electrolysis.
- Devise a tester to test the conducting ability of liquids, using magnetic effects of current.
- Comprehend that the solutions of acids, bases and salts conduct electricity.
- Describe the process of electrolysis through examples.
- Infer that passage of electric current through a conducting solution causes chemical reactions.
- Justify that electrical appliances should not be touched with wet hands.
- Test whether fruits and vegetables also conduct electricity.
- Explain the applications of electroplating in day to day life.
- Describe the process that is used to carry out purification of copper.
- Appreciate how the process of electroplating helps to coat a layer of more expensive metal over an object made of a cheaper metal thus giving it an expensive look. For example, silver plating on an artificial flower vase made up of ordinary metal.
- Carry out an activity to show that liquids conduct electricity.
- Carry out an activity to show that acidified water breaks down to form hydrogen and oxygen gas on passing current through it.
Cell – A Coordinator
- Familiarize with biographies of scientists and their work in discovering the cell.
- Understand the term structural and functional unit of a living organism.
- Define a 'cell'.
- Explore different shapes, sizes and number of cells that make an organism(s).
- Comprehend that cell is a unit of structure and function of an organism.
- Analyze the role of a cell as a coordinator.
- Identify the role of parts of a cell and relate it to the function of an organism.
- Differentiate between unicellular and multicellular organisms.
- Compare and illustrate plant and animal cells.
- Relate the existence of flora and fauna in a given area.
- Comprehend that different climatic conditions determine the flora and fauna.
- Recognize inter –relationship between living and non-living components of the habitat.
- Describe Interdependence between living organisms.
- List and examine how unfavorable conditions affect lives of the organisms.
- Identify and categorize man – made and natural disasters.
- Relate man-made disasters to natural disasters.
- Justify how human action can create conditions for natural disasters.
- Prioritize responsibility to conserve wildlife.
- Design campaigns for conservation of wildlife.
- Classify the organisms according to their status (Endangered species).
- Illustrate with examples the role of adults, children, students for Reuse, Recycle, Reduce.
- Restate that natural disasters happen more infrequently as compared to man-made disasters.
- Comprehend the need to maintain a balance in the Ecosystem.
- Recognise the presence of organisms which are not visible to the naked eye.
- Explore diversity in the world of microbes and classify them on the basis of their distinctive features
- Identify the role of microbes in various spheres of life. (medicine, industry, environment, agriculture, etc.)
- Establish active and passive unique position of viruses in nature.
- Comprehend the importance of microbes as recyclers.
- Cite examples of microbes becoming a threat to the living world – animals and plants.
- List some methods of curtailing food spoilage by microbes and relate them to the day to day activities which prevent food spoilage.
- Understand the phenomenon of refraction of light.
- Explore the factors that cause refraction of light.
- Trace the path of a ray of light through different transparent media like a rectangular glass slab.
- Apply the concept of refraction to real life examples.
- Differentiate between convex and concave lens.
- Perform experiments to show the formation of image by convex and concave lenses.
- Analyse the use of different lenses for different purposes.
- Understand the structure and function of human eye.
- Explore common defects of vision and their correction.
- Understand the need/importance of taking care of eyes.
- Explore how visually challenged persons read or write and empathise with them.
- Perform simple activities related to refraction of light.
Some Natural Phenomena
- Recall the structure of an atom.
- Understand the production of static charges on rubbing.
- Explore how charges are acquired on different objects.
- Investigate the behavior of charges.
- Understand the working of an electroscope.
- Understand how accumulation of charges in clouds causes lightning.
- Explain the precautions which need to be taken during a thunderstorm.
- Understand the working of a lightning conductor.
- Understand the causes of an earthquake.
- Collect information on different earthquake zones.
- Explore the measures taken to minimize the destruction caused by an earthquake.
The Night Sky
- Explore the phases of the moon to explain its formation.
- Explain why we always see the same face of the moon.
- Describe the surface of the moon.
- Identify some common constellations in the night sky.
- Name the planets in the solar system in order of distance from the Sun and state some facts about these.
- Differentiate between a star and a planet.
- Explain with diagrams how eclipses of the Sun and the Moon occur.
- Describe some other members of the solar system like the asteroid, comets, meteor and meteorites.
- Differentiate between natural and artificial satellite.
- List the uses of artificial satellite.
- Locate and use information about the universe from different sources.
Synthetic Fibres and Plastics
- Recall the meaning of the terms: natural fibers and fabrics. • Define the terms: monomers, polymers, plastics and polymerization.
- Comprehend the transformation from fiber to fabric.
- Explain the meaning of synthetic fibers.
- Name various synthetic fibers.
- Distinguish between natural and synthetic fibers.
- Describe the properties of various synthetic fibers.
- Appreciate the knowledge of the properties of synthetic fibers before selecting a fiber for a particular purpose.
- Learn the effect of heat on various fibers.
- State the uses of synthetic fibers in daily life.
- Explain different types of plastics.
- Differentiate between different types of plastics.
- Appreciate the importance of biodegradable plastics over nonbiodegradable ones.
- Recognize different linkages of monomers in plastics.
- Describe the properties and uses of plastics.
- Explore the harmful effects of excessive use of plastics on environment.
- Discuss the ways to reduce usage of plastics.
- Carry out a survey in your area and name the marts where use of plastic bags is totally prohibited.
Coal and Petroleum
- Recall the meaning of the term natural resources.
- Explain the term refining of Petroleum.
- Classify natural resources as exhaustible and inexhaustible resources.
- Appreciate the historical background of the formation of coal.
- Classify different types of coal based on their carbon content.
- Appreciate the uses of the products of destructive distillation of coal.
- List the uses and properties of coke, coal tar and coal gas.
- Describe the process of combustion of coal.
- List the products of combustion of coal.
- Relate the process of combustion of petroleum with coal.
- Name various fractions of petroleum.
- Comprehend the uses of various fractions.
- Explain the process of Fractional distillation.
- Describe the principle of Fractional distillation.
- Infer the importance of non-renewable sources of energy.
- Explore the harmful effects of excessive combustion of coal and petroleum.
- Carry out an activity to study the process of destructive distillation of coal.
Combustion and Flame
- Recall the process of Combustion.
- Define the term ignition temperature.
- Appreciate the significance of air for combustion.
- Differentiate the types of combustion on the basis of availability of oxygen.
- Compare Rapid, Spontaneous and Explosive combustion.
- Classify different examples of combustion observed in daily life.
- Recognize the necessary conditions of combustion.
- Explain the methods of controlling fire.
- Recognise that attainment of ignition temperature can be made easier or difficult.
- Explore the working of a simple fire extinguisher.
- Appreciate the aesthetic sense of chemistry behind fire extinguisher by writing the chemical equation.
- Identify different zones of a candle flame.
- Explain the fuel efficiency in terms of calorific value.
- Describe the causes of burning of fuel.
- Carry out an activity to prepare a simple fire extinguisher.
- Carry out an activity to deduce the necessary conditions required for combustion.
Air And Water Pollution
- Recall the composition of air.
- Define the terms: pollution and pollutants.
- Explain air pollution.
- List some air pollutants.
- Discuss the sources of air pollutants.
- Examine the harmful effects of air pollutants.
- Classify different types of smog's.
- Develop an understanding of Green house effect and Global warming.
- Name various green house gases.
- Explore the ways to reduce air pollution.
- Predict the meaning of water pollution.
- Enlist the factors responsible for water pollution.
- Describe the meaning of potable water.
- Determine various ways to reduce pollution.
- Carry out a survey of your local area by rising factories to find out the measures taken by them to reduce air and water pollutions.
- Carry out simple activities to purify water which lead to reduction in air and water pollutions.
Cell to Organism
- Recall the characteristics of living beings.
- Comprehend the importance of reproduction in the continuation of species.
- Categorize reproduction as Asexual and Sexual reproduction.
- Describe and draw the structure of male and female reproductive system.
- Relate the structure of reproductive organs with their functions.
- Describe the process of fertilization.
- Identify male and female gametes.
- Define the term fertilization.
- Outline the steps of development of foetus from a zygote.
- Diagrammatically present the steps of development of a zygote.
- Differentiate between external and internal fertilization.
- Distiguish between ovipary and vivipary.
- Understand that asexual reproduction takes place in microscopic organisms.
- Describe and draw the process of Budding and Binary Fission.
- Appreciate the contribution of technology in medicine (e.g., IVF) and childless couple.
- Imagine the impact of cloning of different organisms on society.
Landmark in the Human Development
- Identify different physical, emotional and mental changes that occur during teenage.
- Define and understand the term 'puberty' and 'adolescence and secondary sexual characters.
- Discuss the difference between secondary sexual characteristics of human male and female
- Differentiate endocrine glands from exocrine glands
- Locate the functions of different endocrine glands in a human body.
- Describe the main functions of each glands and the role of hormones in maintaining homeostasis.
- Correlate the role of pituitary gland as master gland.
- Identify different disorders/diseases caused due to malfunctioning of different glands and interpret their symptoms.
- Recognise the importance of reproductive health and importance of nutritional needs of adolescents.
- Discuss the possible role of hormones in life cycle of animals other than humans. Example- butterfly and frog.
Technology in Food Production
- Recognize agriculture as the biggest industry in the world.
- Distinguish between various categories of crop plants on the basis of season and the part which is used the most.
- Identify the benefits that horticulture has brought to the farmers as well as the economy of a country.
- Compare the conventional and modern methods of agricultural practices and relate them to the progress made in the field of agro sciences and technology.
- Interpret the link between scientific advancement and the development of high yielding methods using scientific methods.
- Describe the role of different agricultural revolutions in making the countries self sustainable.